19A: Moment in History
The Buddha told his foremost
Disciple, the Venerable Ananda, that "... as long as the Vajjis call
frequent public assemblies of the tribe; as long as they meet in
concord, conclude their meetings in concord and carry out their policies
in concord, so long they may be expected not to decline but to
flourish...". That was with reference to the early republicanism of the
The Tathagatha will surely approve of the legislative concord
exhibited in our Parliament last week when the 19th Amendment to our own
Constitution of the Second Republic was made law. Whether he would,
however, approve of the behaviour of some members of this 'assembly' is
a moot question.
Most of those very same parliamentarians who 'played pandu' in the
House the previous week tamely voted in favour. Others brought in
numerous last-minute revisions to the Amendment Bill, most of which were
cosmetic while some negatively diluted this long-awaited and long-needed
legislation, all just to cut a distinctive figure, possibly with their
personal political survival in mind. These MPs, too, ultimately said
All of these same parliamentarians equally tamely - if noisily -
voted in the opposite direction barely five years ago to pass the 18th
Amendment Bill that simply worsened the constitutional dictatorship that
was our executive presidency.
Such wild swings in the political philosophy of many of our
parliamentarians beg the question whether the intelligence and
deliberative skills expected of political leaders by the Enlightened One
actually thrives in our supposedly thrice blessed, Dharma-filled Dveepa.
Antics and political opportunism apart, it is the first time since the
Dominion Constitution gave us freedom from colonial rule in 1948 that a
major change in the country's political system was brought about not
through a majority vote of the legislature but a near-consensus among
all major political forces in the country.
The first republican Constitution of 1972 was originally intended to
be passed through a process of an all-inclusive 'constituent assembly'
but this very democratic process fell through when the main Tamil-led
parties were virtually thrust aside in the zeal by the Sinhala-led
parties to give prominence to a single language and religion.
Thus our second constitution was passed not by consensus or
near-consensus but by a political majority that excluded a whole ethnic
community. Is it surprising, therefore, that the very same ethnic
community began to act towards its own exclusive polity a decade later?
The process for the third constitution of 1978 did not even bother
with such an inclusive process of a constituent assembly. Drunk with the
power of a large parliamentary majority achieved in the 1977 general
election, the government of the day crudely resorted to a two-thirds
majority vote in Parliament in its process to establish not just a new
constitution but one which took the country away from the Westminster
model to a radically different system that seemingly copied France's
Gaullism but was actually far more authoritarian. The steamroller
majority that pushed through the Presidential system also ignored
minority interests, probably adding to the fires that finally flared up
in separatist insurgency very soon after.
While the provisions of the 19th Amendment are epoch-making in that
they fundamentally transformed the polity from an executive presidency
with near-dictatorial powers, the near-consensus in the national
legislature more closely resembled the inclusive process that is
desirable for such a fundamental political exercise.
It was not since 1948 that the ethnic minority parties and also the
Left parties and other fringe political parties have participated fully
in, and supported, the systemic reform. Movements that were once in
insurgency or tied to insurgency all participated in the process.
The entire nation, therefore, could be said to have achieved this
historic change. It is such a moment in our history that provides vast
opportunities for further measures that need to be taken. This 'maha
sammatha' (great consensus) must be seen as a social unifier in a nation
that was once violently divided. Political unanimity can, and must,
bring social amity.
This is the moment, then, for even greater deeds - perhaps on the
epic scale of the Mahavansa's Dutugemunu - that will further liberate
this island from the bondage of authoritarianism, divisive ethnic
supremacism and, socio-economic deprivation.
In addition to the proposed 20th Amendment that will transform the
electoral system towards a genuinely representative one, this moment of
political consensus should inspire citizenry and political leadership to
explore the viability of a completely new Constitution and a polity that
will celebrate cultural pluralism and social democracy.
On this Vesak Day let us move on towards innovative and liberative
World Press Freedom Day
Given the iron grip on power by the previous government, not many
would have thought last May 5 that the servility of the country's news
media would be ended in the course of a year. Ended, it has been and, in
circumstances that provide, today, for the establishment a new framework
that might guarantee the non-return of the country's media to that state
of abject servility.
True, the socially and economically powerful owners of the corporate
news media also must account for their own lack of initiative in
resisting - to the extent that their social power provides - such
enforced servility. Worse, some news media corporates seem to have
copied the abusive and manipulative style of the ancien regime. In fact,
some yet try such tactics.
The publicly owned news media - what is also called the 'state media'
- has been freed up today as never before. Can the public sector media
take up the challenge of being model communicators of news - of
reporting, caringly and inclusively, the events of the people, their
joys and sorrows, their demands and pronouncements?
After all, World Press Freedom Day is meant to be a moment for
reflection and retrospection on the state of our news media. The news
media must flex their newly freed muscles in the service of the whole
society as well as in the special support of those disadvantaged and
marginalised. The media must not be solely the slaves of either politics
or the market, nor, of the selfish interests of the privileged and
powerful. The festival of Vesak, too, coincidentally inspires.