A ray of hope for curing paralysis
Falling prey to stroke and paralysis could be a condition that is
life-threatening and one of the most unbearable illnesses in the world.
Imagine going from being the sole breadwinner of the family to a
'vegetable' at home unable to do anything. For those who have been
stricken with stroke, there is hardly any hope except to be a burden on
the family medically and physically.
But today, Sri Lanka will be one of the first countries to introduce
an innovative technology which is the first step in curing paralysis in
Speaking to the Sunday Observer was consultant neurologist Dr.
Githanjan Mendis, and Prof. Mark Dallamore, UK neuroscientist who told
about this great technological breakthrough in the form of a microchip.
"Paralysis affects in many forms. Paralysis below the waist is known as
Paraplegia, Tetraplegia (Quadriplegia) is paralysis in the partial or
total loss of use of all their limbs and torso and more types of
conditions such as these affect stroke patients," said Dr. Mendis.
He said that while he and Prof. Dallamore were in the team, there
were two other doctors, Dr. Sugath Gunasekera (neurophysiologist) and
Dr. Fred Perera (consultant neuro surgeon board certified) who were part
of the team working to make this stroke miracle a reality.
According to research, strokes are most common condition which is the
second leading cause of death and paralysis in Sri Lanka. While some can
be completely cured with the proper treatment and physiotherapy, more
often than not, it takes time and most don't even make it. But today,
Prof. Dallamore is hopeful that there is good news for stroke patients
in Sri Lanka.
Prof. Dallamore is an expert who started researching this technology
from 2003 and claims to has successfully managed to trial test this
innovation to stroke patients.
The technology has been successfully developed to permit paralysed
patients to regain normal bodily functions and to walk again. Prof.
Dallamore, who won the Albert Schwietzer Prize for Humanitarianism in
2005, said that there was an American scientist who had a similar
technology but he controlled it himself through wires and a sort of
But in his technology, called the Dallamore Neuro Spinal Implant, it
is a small microchip, much smaller than the traditionally-fitted
pacemakers which would get the job done. He said, "It is a special
microchip technology that regenerates itself using the body's own
mechanisms to develop Nerve Regeneration.
This chip picks up instructions from the brain and transmits them
past the damaged area of the spinal cord, and is ready to perform the
first such operations." He explained the technology in a nutshell that
the nervous system is divided into the Central Nervous System (CNS) and
the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
"The CNS consists of the spinal cord and the brain and the PNS is the
nerves and ganglia that transmit information between the CNS and the
rest of the body. Its main function is to connect the CNS to the limbs
and organs," said the Professor. Even when an injury blocks the
transmission of signals through the spinal cord, the PNS still functions
"The Dallamore Neuro Spinal Implant bypasses the damaged area of the
spinal cord, so allowing the body to recognise and respond to
instructions from the PNS," he said. Prof. Dallmore founded Neuroscience
for Nerve Regeneration International to implement his development and to
research further medical advances. Last year, Prof.Dallmore was awarded
the Knight Commander, Sovereign and Military Order of the Knights
Hospitaller of St. John which made him a more credible neuroscientist.
"I have developed this technology in the UK with trial testing and
the reason why we could initiate this breakthrough medical innovation
was because we got the license to do it here. The Professor and his team
are licensed to perform this procedure in Sri Lanka which has been seen
as a medical miracle for giving hope to stroke patients. After
qualifying as a physician in 1991, Professor Dallamore has had plenty of
experience working with stroke patients that have led to his patients
regaining full mobility and to the realisation that nerves can be
In London, Prof Dallamore further studied Neurophysics and researched
spinal conditions - gaining a PhD in the Philosophy of Medicine in 2001.
In early 2005 he qualified as a Neuroscientist with a PhD in
Neuroscience, and a PhD in Neurophysics later in 2005. In 2010, he
founded a team to complete the development of his research and create a
chip implant system to restore mobility and bodily functions to
The professor even has a foundation called the Sir Mark Dallamore
Foundation for children which treats children with nerve and muscle
conditions. "We take our research seriously and we can assure all stroke
patients that there are absolutely no side effects when it comes to
inserting this microchip in your spinal cord.
"People might worry at first whether it is safe-proof but we can
guarantee and give an assurance that it won't harm the patient in any
way," said the Professor. The final testing of the Dallamore Neuro
Spinal Implant has been successfully completed. "The whole development
process is now complete and the chips and connectors have entered
production in September. We are on course to meet our target of
performing the first surgical procedure in the last quarter of 2011,"
said the Professor.
"It isn't easy to be a burden to your family after being the main
income-earner. In this way, while stroke patients have no hope of
helping themselves, I am sure this technology will be embraced with arms
wide open," predicted Dr. Mendis.
"We will give concessionary rates for Sri Lankan stroke patients and
their families to purchase the microchip. It might mean a big investment
but it is a worthy and reliable cure in the long run," said Dr. Mendis.
No taboo or shame in mental illness
Mental illness is becoming common in Sri Lanka. One in ten Sri
Lankans suffer from some type of mental illness or trauma, the National
Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) revealed recently. The study had found
that the causes for mental illness in Sri Lanka were both varied and
It is human nature to fear what we don't understand. As such, mental
illness is feared by many people and, unfortunately, still carries a
stigma. Because of this stigma, many people hesitate to get help for a
mental health problem for fear of being looked down upon. It is
unfortunate that this happens because effective treatment exists for
almost all mental illnesses. Worse, the stigma experienced by people
with a mental illness can be more destructive than the illness itself.
Words like "crazy," "psycho," "wacko" and "nutso" are just a few
examples of words that keep the stigma of mental illness alive. These
words belittle and offend people with mental health problems. Of course,
many of us use them without intending any harm. Just as we wouldn't mock
someone for having a physical illness like cancer or heart disease, it
is cruel to make fun of someone with a mental illness.
A few days ago, at a casual meeting with a group of foreign social
friends, I was introduced to Dr. Emil Gerald Kretschmer, M.D., retired
German psychiatrist, who had a 30-year medical career specialising in
child and adolescent mental disorders.
He was holidaying in Sri Lanka and when requested, he agreed to share
his experiences and also to explain his opinions of mental disorders and
their prevention. This article is written based on the views expressed
What is Mental Illness?
Mental illnesses are medical conditions that disrupt a person's
thinking, feeling, mood, ability to relate to others and daily
functioning. Just as diabetes is a disorder of the pancreas, mental
illnesses are medical conditions that often result in a diminished
capacity for coping with the ordinary demands of life.
Mental illnesses can affect persons of any age, race, religion, or
income. Most of them are treatable. Most people diagnosed with a serious
mental illness can experience relief from their symptoms by actively
participating in an individual treatment plan.
In addition to medication treatment, psycho-social treatment such as
cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy, peer support
groups and other community services can also be components of a
treatment plan and that assist with recovery. The availability of proper
diet, exercise, sleep, friends and meaningful paid or volunteer
activities contribute to overall health and wellness, including mental
What causes mental illness?
There is no simple answer to this question as there are lots of
reasons why someone might develop a mental illness. Usually it is a
combination of a number of those reasons, and not only one.
Dr. Kretschmer explained these causes
1. Physical causes: These are those, which are biological in nature.
Someone might inherit characteristic from their family through their
genes which mean they are much more at risk than other people.
For example, it has also been found that people who have suffered
head injuries can experience changes to their personality, and in some
cases may begin to experience schizophrenia and psychotic type symptoms.
(By the way, schizophrenia means any of several psychotic disorders
characterised by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and
language and withdrawal from social contact)
Another example is if a mother is taking drugs while she is pregnant,
or if she gets a virus (like the flu) this might affect on how the
baby's brain develops. There have also been reports that suggest vitamin
and mineral deficiencies such as Vitamin D, zinc and certain fatty acids
may also be related to our mental health.
2. Social and environmental causes : When we talk about social and
environmental causes, things that are going on around us, and how we
feel about them can have a big impact on our mental health.
These might be things such as, where we live, our place of work,
whether we have close family and friends and how and where we can relax.
(a) The physical environment where we live can be very stressful,
particularly when there are problems with neighbours, or if there are
high crime rates and other such issues.
(b) Whether you enjoy your work, or feel you are under too much
pressure, are unable to find employment or hold down a job, can all put
pressure on your mental well-being.
(c) When we face difficult times our support networks become very
important - those who do not have close friends or families, or those
who do not live near the people who support them may find it
increasingly difficult to cope alone.
(d) All these kinds of problems will increase the amount of stress
people are under, and can cause depression and anxiety especially in
situations where people don't have a time or a place to relax.
(e) Environmental triggers leading to mental illness include living
in poverty, being raised in a dysfunctional family and frequently
changing schools or home situations. Certain societal attitudes, such as
about weight and physical appearances, for example, may also make people
anxious or depressed.
3. Psychological factors
Our psychological state can influence our mental and emotional state,
particularly if we are coping with a traumatic and abusive past or
current experiences. It is recognised, for example, that sexual and
physical abuse can result in a range of mental illness symptoms from
anxiety to multiple personality. Other psychological causes include
neglect and loss of a loved one at an early age. Most of these problems
lead to low self-esteem and self-confidence.
Increasingly, researchers are looking more at the correlation between
food and mental illness. For example, scientists have found out that
normal brain development in infants and children may be hindered due to
a diet lacking in omega-3 fatty acids.
Mental illnesses are often found to run in families. When looking at
a family tree, for example, one can often trace mental illness from one
generation to the next. This is because there are certain mental
illnesses that may be linked to genes. A person may not necessarily
become mentally ill, but will have a greater risk of developing a mental
How do we prevent or minimise mental disorders?
An essential first step in a prevention effort is to use a risk
reduction model as the basis for prevention. Risk factors are those
characteristics, variables, or hazards that, if present for a given
individual, make it more likely that this individual will develop a
If causal risk factors can be decreased or if protective factors can
be enhanced, the likelihood that at- risk individuals would actually
develop mental disorders would decrease.
This risk-reduction model is widely used to prevent physical
disorders. Smoking is a classical risk factor for a variety of physical
disorders, and prevention programs aimed at persons who smoke and are,
therefore, at risk, is an example of an approach to the prevention of
Another suggestion is for an increased application of rigorous
research methods to the prevention field. One example is the use of
nurse home visitors for high-risk pregnant women. In a well-controlled
trial, the study has shown the reduction in low birth-weight infants,
and following the birth of the baby, a reduction in unintentional
injuries and child abuse.
These medical problems have all been shown to be risk factors for
Another group of studies dealt with young people at increased risk
for depression because of family history. Carefully controlled
interventions on small groups have demonstrated decreased risk of
Mental illnesses present an important public health challenge for Sri
Lanka. All sectors of society and all levels of government have roles to
play in responding adequately to this challenge.
I believe we urgently need a national action plan to guide the
national response to mental illnesses. This can act as a blueprint that
may be expanded upon and further developed in collaboration with other
Overcoming suicide and causes that lead to it
There are two kinds of terminological concepts which are related to
the definition of suicide. Committed suicide and, Attempted: Suicide
Committed suicide means taking of one's own life. If one plans to
kill one's self, or destroys one's life, it is referred as committed
suicide. It is very difficult to understand why some people do this or
intend to do this.
It is a conscious and voluntary act, which the individual has
undertaken in order to injure himself, where the injury has not led to
death. We can define in an other way that if one plans to kill himself,
that plan sometime fails to destroy his or her life due to provision of
medical treatment, etc. such acts are referred to as attempted suicide.
Attempted suicide is a life threatening act.
Some people attempt suicide to get attention from society on some
problem he or she faced. Such person may die from that attempt, even
though, he or she does not wish to destroy his or her life. There are
some cases who merely try to attempt suicide to get attention from
society. If the person died in this attempt, it is recorded as committed
suicide, if not it is recorded as attempted suicide.
a) Expecting higher achievement b) Fear of failure c) Psychological
pain d) Frustrated mind e) Hopelessness and helplessness f) Religious
factors Perspective on the Causes of the Phenomenon of Suicide
Number of cultural, social, environmental, biological, psychological
factors can influence on a person who interested in suicide commitment.
These factors can vary based on age, gender and ethnic group and they
can change over time. So suicide is a consequence of complex interaction
among different factors.
The psychological factors associated with psychological disorders,
particularly, depression, feelings helplessness and hopelessness,
inability to experience pleasure, aloneness and preoccupation with
death. These factors affect not only the career personality status but
also the motivations for his actions, thoughts, or feelings, that lead
him to suicide.
A variety of socio economic factors affect suicide risk. Most social
scientists believe that a society's structure and value can influence
the suicide rate. The low social status of women influences the rate of
female suicide in Asia. For example, in some Asian countries, lovers of
different social status, whose marriage would not be approved by the
parents or family may choose suicide. Social isolation or lack of social
support is associated with suicide.
While social isolation refers to relationship with others, social
support refers to the quality of those relationships. Social support
entails emotional support, affirmative support and tangible support.
The growth of population and technology in the nation, leads to a
greater division of labour and lower social integration. Divorce is a
central indicator of social disintegration and may lead to suicide risk
in our society. Unemployment and urbanisation also contribute to
increase the risk of suicide. Urbanisation of areas can be expected to
have a higher degree of disintegration, which, in turn, increased the
A suicidal person is generally affected by cultures. Different
national groups have different suicide rates. For example, in the United
States, young adult males are most likely to commit suicide by firearms,
but in China, Japan, India and Sri Lanka more likely to commit suicide
by burning. Myth and folklore also illustrate some kind of suicide
attitudes. Culture may also determine interpersonal relationships that
influence the occurrence of suicide.
Death and the after life
Convictions of Eternal peace after death, the possibility of reunion
with a deceased love one, acute pain, natural faith in black magic may
be key factors in an individual's suicide behaviour.
Religions have been thought to influence suicide through three
1) Religious integration, beliefs and practices.
2) Religious commitment or adherence to a few specific beliefs such
as belief in an after life.
3) Religious network or the special support derived from interaction
Measures for remedy and strategies
Develop favourable attitudes towards the problems. Develop and enrich
religions teaching and concept. A balance should be maintained between
the physical and intellectual needs.
Develop positive interaction with neighbours, family and society.
Learn from failures
Improve favourable attitude towards education and learning.
Develop constructive attitudes towards nation and its culture.
Conduct positive attitude towards the relations.
Constantly develop in the mind the conviction that they would succeed
and are capable to gain good achievement. Encouragement should be given
to each man and woman to live with the present but not with the past and
(The writer is Deputy Director of
Education, Value Education Branch Ministry of Education, Isurupaya,