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How to use 'enough'

'Enough' means "as much as is necessary." We use 'enough' before singular (uncountable) or plural nouns.

Have you enough money for the trip?

The soup is insipid. There isnít enough salt in it.


There aren't enough cups for everybody.
There is not enough ice cream for us.
There are not enough seats in the auditorium.
There isn't enough water in the tank.
There aren't enough buses on this road.
Have you enough time to finish the work?
There were plenty of boys at his birthday party, but not enough girls.
We couldn't sit down because there weren't enough chairs.
You won't pass the examination because you haven't done enough work.
She has got enough money for the bus fare.
The soup is insipid. There isn't enough salt in it.
Are there enough cakes for everybody?
I have Rs 500. That should be enough for my expenses.
She knows enough about art to recognise a good painting.
Father is tall enough to change the bulb without getting on a chair.
'Enough' also means "as much as or more than" is wanted.
I have got enough work to do today.
I get a good salary. It is quite enough for my expenses.
You have drunk more than enough.
I have seen enough now.
I have read enough now.
I have had enough of your lame excuses.
Enough of this, I don't want to talk about it any more.
We use 'enough is enough' when we want something to stop.
Enough is enough, I don't wish to argue with you.

We use 'enough' after an adjective, adverb or a verb to mean "to the necessary degree."
Is the water hot enough?
She is not experienced enough to do journalism.
I was stupid enough to believe him.
She was good enough to give me a helping hand.

We use 'enough' to mean "quite."
I hope my instructions are clear enough.
We use 'enough' without a noun if the meaning is clear.

Father is tall enough
to change the bulb
without getting on a
chair.

A: More rice?
B: No thanks. I've got enough.

A: Do you want some more ice cream?
B: Enough.

A: Any more milk?
B: Quite enough.

A: How does it taste?
B: Sweet enough.

Adjective + enough + infinitive
You are old enough to travel by yourself.
Father was tall enough to see the play over the heads of others.
The milk is cool enough to drink.
The road was good enough to drive my car.
The light was strong enough to read books.

'Enough' can be used as a pronoun.
Do you earn enough to live?
Do you eat enough to survive?
Do you study enough to pass the examination?


Match words and meanings

Here's an exciting way to enrich your vocabulary. Match the words in Column A with their meanings in Column B and check your answers with the key. The first has been done for you.

[Column A]

M 1. deed
... 2. deem
... 3. deeply
... 4. deep-seated
... 5. de-escalate
... 6. def
... 7. deface
... 8. de facto
... 9. defame
... 10. default
... 11. defeat
... 12. defect
... 13. defence
... 14. defend
... 15. defendant
... 16. defender
... 17. defensible
... 18. defer
... 19. deference
... 20. deferential
... 21. defiant
... 22. deficiency
... 23. deficient
... 24. defile
... 25. definite

[Column B]

A. extremely or strongly
B. existing in fact
C. to fail to do something
D. a fault
E. able to be protected from attack
F. to delay something until a later time
G. respect and politeness
H. someone who protects a place against attack
I. protection against attack
J. to damage the reputation of someone
K. to become less dangerous
L. strongly felt or believed
M. an intentional act
N. to damage the appearance of something
O. to protect somone against attack
P. proudly refusing to obey authority
Q. state of not having enough
R. not having enough of
S. to spoil the beauty of something
T. fixed, certain or clear
U. polite and showing respect
V. a person accused of having done something illegal
W. to win a victory over someone in a fight
X. very good
Y. to consider something in a particular way.


Key:

2.Y 3.A 4.L 5.K 6.X 7.N 8.B 9.J 10.C 11.W 12.D 13.I 14.O 15.V 16.H 17.E 18.F 19.G 20.U 21.P 22.Q 23.R 24.S 25.T


How to use 'It'

"It' is a pronoun used as the subject or object of a sentence. `It' refers to an animal, a thing or situation which has already been mentioned.

A: Where's my car? I parked it here.
B: I think it's still in the garage.
The factory was running at a loss and it had to retrench some workers.
I had a serious argument with my employer but I don't want to talk about it.
Smoking is a very bad habit. People do it for different reasons.
I left my pair of spectacles in office yesterday and I can collect it on Monday.
You are wearing a new shirt. It is very nice.
Swimming is a good exercise, isn't it?
To obtain a housing loan you have to fill so many forms. It's ridiculous.

Shall we sit over there?


I find philosophy fascinating. I'm really interested in it.

We use 'it' to refer to an unknown person.
A: Did anyone call?
B: It was Ajantha. She won't be coming to office today.
A: Ask who is calling?
B: It's the director.

We use 'it' to refer to the time, weather or distance.
It's ten thirty now.
It's Monday.
It's raining.
It's 20 kilometres from here to Colombo.

We use 'it' with an infinitive or a 'that clause.'
It's nice to meet you again.
It would be advisable to go by train.
It's important to lock all the doors before leaving the office.
It's a pity she can't come with us.

There
As an adverb 'there' means 'that place.'
Shall we sit over there?
Keep your books there.
Park your car there.
There's that boy you were talking about.
Father is waiting for me out there.

We use 'there' to introduce the subject of a sentence.
There's someone on the phone for you.
There's no doubt that he will pass the examination.
There's no money in my bank account.
When we went to the hotel there was no food left.
There seems to be some delay in processing my application.
There lived an old man in a remote village.
A: I really ought to call home.
B: Well, there's a phone box round the corner.
There's an important meeting in the boardroom.

We can use 'there' with "a lot of, many, much, more, enough" and numbers.
There are a lot of freshers at the university today.
There are many tourists at the Floating Market in Pettah.
There's not much money in my purse.
There are more people to come.
There's enough ice cream to go round.
There are 10 books on my table.


Quiz on idioms

An idiom is a special kind of phrase. It is a group of words which have a different meaning when used together from the one it would have if the meaning of each word were taken individually. Tick the meaning of each idiom in bold and check your answers with the key.

1. If something is as clear as a bell ...
(a) it is very clear
(b) it is not clear
(c) it is like a bell

2. If something is as clear as crystal ...
(a) it is not very clear
(b) it is very clear
(c) it is transparent

3. If something is as clear as day ...
(a) it is dark
(b) it is not very easy to see
(c) it is very easy to see

4. It is as clear as mud ...
(a) it is difficult to understand
(b) it is easy to understand
(c) it has the colour of mud

5. If someone is in the clear ...
(a) they are in the open area
(b) they are the culprits
(c) they are free from blame

6. Steer clear of the danger of drugs.
(a) deliberately avoid drugs
(b) understand the danger of drugs
(c) do not buy drugs

7. If someone is boxing cleverly ...
(a) they are dancing happily
(b) they are attacking their rivals
(c) they are careful in a difficult situation

8. If someone is working round the clock ...
(a) they are working continuously
(b) they are working punctually
(c) they are working on an hourly basis

9. If someone wants to turn the clock back ...
(a) they want the time to advance quickly
(b) they want to change the time
(c) they like to return to an early period

10. If something goes like clockwork ...
(a) it works very well
(b) it does not work
(c) it is done methodically

Key:

1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (a)

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