Top jobs: Women historically disadvantaged
Only 24 of the Fortune 500 CEOs are women, which is less than five
percent. In Sri Lanka women in top management positions are around five
percent and the female labour participation rate is 38 percent. This is
despite women obtaining more degrees than men, clearly not a productive
economic outcome. Socially, most business leaders tend to treat both
genders equally and be gender-neutral when picking people for key jobs.
It is the right thing to do. But, women have historically been
disadvantaged and not given an equal chance in jobs. This situation
could be due to -
* Not having the experience, training or skills due to not being in
the workforce for as long as most men
* Choosing to participate in a mothering role, which takes her out of
the opportunity space for some time
* Leaders often selecting successors who look and feel like them, and
some men having not had women peers or bosses.
Globally, in the past two years, women have made great strides in
closing the gap for c-suite jobs. Today, women now better educated than
ever, are stepping into high profile roles and are also outnumbering men
as the primary breadwinners in households.
In most US companies, the percentage of women at or near the top has
However, despite this shift most professional women continue to
suffer from occupational segregation in the workplace and find it hard
to break through the so-called 'glass ceiling' or the 'glass cliff'
created by their male colleagues separating them from top-level jobs and
the middle level professional positions.
While South Asia has made substantial progress mainly due to the
efforts of the State to close the gender gap in top managerial and
professional jobs, for most women in top management it is still lonely
at the top, and the glass ceiling still remains relatively intact.
According to non-profit research group Catalyst, despite a few
headline-grabbing gains in 2012, women still hold a low percentage of
the top jobs in the private and public sectors, even though they
represent more than 50 per cent of the world's labour force.
Yet their share of management positions still remains unacceptably
low with just a tiny proportion succeeding in breaking through the glass
ceiling to obtain plum top jobs.
One explanation for this small number of female executives is the
persistence of negative stereotypes about women as top managers. What
should we do to help women 'catch up' and be noticed?
Attitudes about the role of women in society may have changed
dramatically, but women are still perceived as being less suited than
men to manage the top stressful, demanding and male dominated managerial
Such perceptions about female managers may cause firms to under-use a
significant part of the workforce.
Today, even though women represent nearly half of the total labour
force, discrimination based on sex continues to occur in such areas as
overseas training, foreign postings, performance appraisal, mentoring
opportunities, pay and available career paths.
Therefore, shifting culture to improve the day-to-day experience of
women to ensure that they can build great careers will encourage greater
We often hear the argument that even though more and more women are
obtaining professional qualifications, there are still an insufficient
number of professionally trained women to fill top jobs.
This argument is rapidly becoming outdated. For example, the number
of women qualifying as technology professionals, accountants and lawyers
has increased drastically over the past few years and many of them make
that extra effort to grow and build soft skills.
While gender differences still exist in professional study choices,
women worldwide are demonstrating their intellectual ability and are
approaching the level of men in educational and intellectual attainment.
However, women with family responsibilities find that their upward
movement is often hampered as they fight for time to devote to career
An important feature of professional and especially managerial work
are the long working hours that are necessary to gain recognition and
Women also need to work on c-suite skills such as business acumen,
ability to negotiate assertively, strategic thinking, lead senior staff
and invest in leadership talk time and also to manage adversity.
Several women and probably some men think that women are bad
negotiators. This perception hardly comes as a surprise as women
compared to men are on average paid less and occupy fewer leadership
positions, despite some reduction in the gender salary gap and an
increase in the number of women in leadership positions in the past
Women when compared to men have on average fewer or worse negotiation
opportunities and conditions. Even when given similar opportunities,
women still get on average worse outcomes than men.
There seems to be much evidence that women are indeed bad negotiators
or at least worse than men.
On the other hand, research suggests that women's negotiation
outcomes are claimed to be more a consequence of learnt gender behaviour
than of genetic imprint.
Indeed, women have great potential to become great negotiators if
they only understand and overcome a few internal and external gender
Today, having women on boards is a subject for much debate. Earlier
research was contradictory. A paper in the Journal of Financial
Economics, 'Women in the Boardroom and their Impact on Governance and
Performance', contended that where management was good, it is better to
leave well alone rather than tamper with gender balance, though in cases
of weak governance, female directors brought improvement because they
tended to exercise stronger oversight and also the belief of many senior
business leaders that women have a beneficial effect on the character
and culture of the boardroom.
In the final analysis, setting quotas and introducing legislation may
not be the best way to increase the number of women in leadership roles.
Because it may not be fair for men to have men pay for social justice
by promoting a disproportionate number of women and also to women to
take jobs where they may not be the most qualified and where gender
gives them an advantage.
Instead, we need to make sure that the talent pipeline is filled with
women, in school and early jobs.
This will increase the pool of women and ultimately increase the
number of women qualifying for key jobs.
This may take some time but it will ensure a firm deploys the entire
workforce productively and inclusively.