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The Smithsonian Institution:

World's largest museum complex

The world's largest museum complex, the Smithsonian Institution houses an impressive medical sciences collection. It dates from 1876, when about 600 crude drug specimens, displayed at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, were deposited in the U.S. National Museum. Since then it has grown into one of the largest collections of medical objects in the world, encompassing almost all fields of medicine and health care.

The medical sciences collection is a part of the National Museum of American History (14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW). Administered by the Division of Science, Medicine, and Society, the diverse collection includes patent medicines, drug-manufacturing apparatus and containers, biologicals, alternative medicines, laboratory equipment, eyeglasses, prosthetics and artificial organs, surgical instruments, dental equipment, microscopes, radiology and other body imaging devices, diagnostic instruments, quack medical devices, veterinary medicines, uniforms, public health materials and biotechnology instrumentation. These are supplemented by trade catalogues, posters, advertising literature, business records and audiovisual and manuscript materials.

Some of the earliest fauna and flora specimens at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (10th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW) date from the 1850s. Federally sponsored expeditions such as the United States Mexican Boundary Survey (1848-1855), Pacific Railroad Survey (1853-1855) and Northwest Boundary Survey (1857-1861) had physician-naturalists accompanying the surveying teams. These expeditions produced large collections of animals and plants which were deposited at the Smithsonian. Many physician-naturalists, including Caleb B.R. Kennerly, James G. Cooper, George Suckley, Adolphus L. Heermann and John S. Newberry, contributed to early collection building at the Smithsonian.

The Smithsonian Institution is a research institution founded by the bequest of James Smithson, an English scientist. Smithson, who died in 1829, had stipulated in his will that should his nephew and heir himself die without issue, his remaining assets would pass to the United States and be used to found the Smithsonian Institution. The nephew died, heirless, in 1835, and the U.S. government was apprised of the endowment.

Although it was held by John C. Calhoun and other members of Congress that the federal government had no power to accept such a gift, it was finally secured, largely through the efforts of John Quincy Adams. By 1838 the estate had been liquidated and the resulting $508,318.46 was passed to the U.S. government.

Because the intent of Smithson's bequest was vague-he merely stated that the funds should be used for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge among men"-there was considerable disagreement over how the money was to be deployed. Conceptualized as a university during early discussions, the cornerstone for the Smithsonian Institution building was laid the following year on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The building-inspired by Norman architecture and designed by James Renwick was completed in 1855. Smithson's remains would eventually be reinterred there.

When in 1901 the institution was alerted to the imminent disturbance of his grave in Italy because of mining in the area, regent Alexander Graham Bell began advocating for the remains to be shipped to the United States.

In 1903 he travelled to Italy and supervised their disinterment. They were installed in a crypt in the building-known as the Castle-two years later.

The Smithsonian continued to expand and by the turn of the 21st century its various constituent museums housed over 1.3 million artefacts, among them many American "national treasures." The institution comprised more than 15 museums and a number of research centres; over 160 institutions were affiliated. Among the notable items held by the institution were the massive blue Hope diamond the `Columbia' command module from the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, and the flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write the lyrics of "The Star-Spangled Banner" in 1814.

The Smithsonian also maintained significant ethnographic and natural history collections, among them John Wesley Powell's record of his research on Native Americans in Colorado, a diverse array of more than 4 million fossils, and the National Herbarium, which preserved 4.5 million plant specimens. The institute also cared for pop-culture esoterica, such as the ruby slippers worn by Judy

Facade of the Smithsonian Institution

Garland in the film The Wizard of Oz Slightly more than one percent of these items were on display; most were in storage or research areas of the various museums or in a facility in Maryland.

The Smithsonian is governed by a board of regents consisting of the U.S. vice president, the chief justice of the United States, three senators appointed by the president pro tempore of the Senate three representatives appointed by the speaker of the House of Representatives, and nine U.S. citizens chosen by the board and approved by joint resolution of Congress.

The board administers the Smithsonian's budget. Trust funds account for approximately a third of the institution's operating costs; the remainder comes largely from annual congressional appropriations.

The Smithsonian magazine, first issued in 1970, is published by the institution, as is Air & Space, first issued in 1986. Smithsonian Networks, a television channel featuring documentaries and shows related to Smithsonian holdings, was launched in 2007.

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