Holding memory hostage to politics
T he Right to Memory' held at the Jaffna Public Library in May 2015,
was the first public event held in the North since the end of the war
that dealt with issues of transitional justice and posed tough questions
of remembering, recognizing and acknowledging the past. This article
flags some of the issues raised in the writer's presentation at the
event and is meant to generate a discussion on the right to memory and
the politics and nuances it encompasses.
The Chilean playwright Ariel Dorfman in his play 'Death and the
Maiden' poses some pertinent questions relevant to the subject of memory
and issues faced by any post war society: "How do we keep the past alive
without becoming its prisoner? How do we forget it without risking its
repetition in the future?"These questions raise important issues when
talking about the past and the possibilities in the future. Is it
possible to focus on the past without being held its hostage? Can the
past be left behind without repeating mistakes? These questions are
important in a post war context where contested and competing memories
exist and challenges remain on how best to address transitional justice
Memory and Its Role in Transitional Justice
Within the framework of transitional justice and its four pillars-
truth, justice, reparations and guarantee of no recurrence-
memorialization falls within the third pillar of reparations. But it is
not mutually exclusive to reparations.
Monument for the Disappeared -Against Every Single
Disappearance was created by Chandragupta Thenuwara under
the guidance and initiative of Kalape Api and Asian Human
Rights Commission. It was inaugurated by the Friends and
Relatives of Disappeared on February 04 2000, in Raddoluwa
Junction where Ranjith Herath and his friend M.Lionel were
killed and burnt on October 27th 1989 – pic courtesy
Memory is connected to all other pillars in that it has implications
to finding the truth, obtaining justice and ensuring there is a non
recurrence of violence. In Sri Lanka where the discussions on
transitional justice have been basic so far, discussions are now moving
slowly as to what issues, processes and mechanisms should be considered
that best fits the Sri Lankan context.
Discussions so far have centered more on issues of truth, justice and
some aspects of reparations such as compensation and restitution. While
recognizing these are important issues that require considerable
attention and action, attention must also be on initiatives to remember
and recognize the past and provide space for the multiple and competing
There are both individual and collective memories, at times competing
with each other, especially in societies that have experienced violence,
death, displacement and devastation. Memory can be a powerful way of
commemorating victims and events in history, and contribute to truth and
It is also a way of recognizing the competing forms of victimhood and
the need for a nuanced approach when dealing with such issues.
Memory initiatives can be at the individual level as well as state
sponsored. Individual memory initiatives can include artifacts, letters,
photographs and storytelling, a more ephemeral form of remembering.
State-sponsored memorialization effortscan includelawmaking and
transitional justice initiatives. These efforts can take the form of
truth commissions, courts, reparations programs, memorials, and days of
Many other questions must be asked when dealing with memory. Is there
a prioritization in terms of deciding whose memory is more important?
The competing memories highlight the diversity but who decides which one
is more important? Whose memories count and at what cost? These
questions must be addressed when thinking through memory projects.
Similar initiatives in other contexts that have successfully contributed
to reconciliation efforts have taken time to design and involved an
inclusive and consultative process.
For example, the Memory Park in Buenos Aires, Argentina took years to
plan and design and continues to evolve with new information and art
pieces included on a regular basis. There also must be the buy in of the
different stakeholders including victims and families of the disappeared
who should be included in the different phases of design and
construction of memorials and monuments. In Argentina, families of the
disappeared and civil society played key roles in shaping memory spaces,
thereby capturing the different perspectives and multiple memories.
Memorials and Monuments
Art critique Arthur Danto in his piece titled 'The Vietnam Veterans
Memorial', commented on memorials and monuments, observing: "Very few
nations erect monuments to their defeats, but many set up memorials to
the defeated dead. Monuments make heroes and triumphs, victories and
conquests, perpetually present and part of life.
The memorial is a special precinct, extruded from life, a segregated
enclave where we honour the dead. With monuments we honour ourselves."
He goes on to make the point that a memorial enables to remember the men
and women who were killed or are missing and thereby not forgetting them
as opposed to a victory monument, which remembers a victory and thereby
captures the triumphalist nature of the victor.
This is a relevant point in post war Sri Lanka where the monuments
erected by the State capture the victorious military campaign with no
space to recognize the multiple narratives including the costs to
Memorials and monuments can play a role in connecting people and
perspectives. If memorials are seen as exclusionary or restrictive in
what it stands for or monuments are seen as a triumphalist gesture, they
are likely to undermine any efforts of genuine reconciliation.
It is also important to ensure that memorials and monuments stand to
remember the past, not erase it. The destruction of the LTTE cemeteries
in the North and subsequent construction of camps for security force on
the same land is an example where the then government deliberately
attempted to erase a part of Sri Lankan history and rob families and
communities a space to remember and to mourn.
Six years after the war, there is no one memorial or monument that
captures the complex history of Sri Lanka. Those constructed by the
State such as the monuments in Killinochchi town and Elephant Pass
represents the victorious state machinery that defeated the LTTE,
depicting the official narrative of the Government with no space for any
To date, there is no memorial or monument built by the State that
captures the plight of civilians during the war. Civil society and
others have initiated their own forms of memorialization including a
memorial for the disappeared in Seeduwa and art work that provide a
critical space for families and affected communities to remember but are
limited in its number and reach. Greater effort must therefore be taken
to ensure that the material aspect of memory such as memorials and
monuments erected in the future address and capture the complexities in
Sri Lankan history and the competing memories.
Memory is a double-edged sword. It is powerful in how it shapes the
present and the future.
It can either be a tool that connects diverse actors and captures the
multiple and competing narrative to inform and enrich reconciliation. Or
by curtailing and controlling memories and memory spaces, communities
may feel sidelined, thereby impacting efforts at reconciliation.
Memorials and monuments if planned and built through an inclusive and
timely process can have a positive impact.
Process therefore is important as it can bring together diverse
actors and views and generate a dialogue. Discussions regarding
memorials and monuments should evolve even after the construction of
such sites, ensuring there is space for future generations to reflect
and discuss rather than be static and outdated.
It is worth examining memory spaces such as those in Argentina,
Cambodia, Chile and Rwanda to identify ways of initiating Sri Lanka's
own memory projects. Memorials and monuments do not need to be limited
to physically constructed spaces and can include others such as art,
literature and theater.
Ultimately, we must recognize that memories cannot be imprisoned or
silenced. Nor can they be permanently erased.
Eventually, aspects of it will emerge, confronting society with the
past and the unanswered questions. Thus, it is critical to commence the
journey to address the past and recognize and make space for the
multiple and competing memories.