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Sunday, 12 May 2013

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Subject and predicate

A sentence is usually made up of a subject and a predicate. The subject usually comes before the predicate.

Subject Predicate


Some politicians / are / popular in their electorates.

1. Roy/won the scholarship at the age of 12.
2. Gamini/excelled in rugby, cricket and football.
3. Retired parents / seek suitable partner for their daughter.
4. We/canít live without paper and plastic.
5. The trees/ are swaying in the wind.
6. Sri Lanka/ has been experiencing a change of weather patterns.
7. This/ is a new concept we are working with.
8. The exhibition/ will be followed by an award ceremony.
9. The tour/ included all public areas on the ground floor.
10. The first week/ is dedicated to theory.

A predicate must contain at least one verb. It can have an object, a complement or an adverbial.

All the students / read / their textbooks.
(Subject / verb / object)

Some politicians / are / popular in their electorates.
(Subject / verb / complement)

The partially damaged statue / was rebuilt / during the holidays.
(Subject / verb / adverbial)

A sentence can contain two objects: a direct object and an indirect object. The direct object receives the action from the subject. The indirect object is somebody who benefits from the action on the direct object.


Gamini/excelled in rugby, cricket and football.

The organisers / gave / a certificate and a cash prize / to / the best actor.
(Subject / verb / direct object / preposition / indirect object)

[Activity]

Underline the correct sentences and check your answers with the key.

1. From Jaya we havenít heard yet.
2. We havenít heard from Jaya yet.
3. Havenít heard from Jaya yet.
4. The cake that Selvi baked very tasty.
5. The cake that Selvi has baked is very tasty.
6. Selviís cake that she baked is very tasty.
7. Those two youth are trainee journalists.
8. Those two youth trainee journalists.
9. Those are two youth trainee journalists.
10. The teacher announced the names of all the students who passed the examination.
11. The teacher announced the names of all students who passed the examination.
12. The teacher announced names of all the students who passed the examination.


Key:

Correct sentences:
2, 5, 7, 10.


Match words and meanings

We give below 25 words in the alphabetical order in column A. In column B you will find the meanings all mixed up. Match the words with their meanings and check your answers with the key.

[Column A] [Column B]

1. Absorb ............
2. Acceptable ............
3. Access ............
4. Accommodate .............
5. Accurate .............
6. Admission .............
7. Affect .............
8. Alumnus .............
9. Amateur .............
10. Ancient .............
11. Annoy .............
12. Annual ............
13. Antique .............
14. Appetite .............
15. Approve .............
16. Arrogant .............
17. Ascend ..............
18. Assure ..............
19. Audible ..............
20. Auspicious ..............
21. Avoid ..............
22. Aware .............
23. Basis ............
24. Belligerent .............
25. Boulevard .............

[Column B]

A. approach
B. act of allowing entrance
C. happening once a year
D. desire for food
E. the main part
F. former student of a school
G. knowing
H. have room for
I. go up
J. keep away from
K. make sure
L. capable of being heard
M. making no errors
N. make angry
O. of times long past
P. produce a result on
Q. with signs of success
R. speak well of
S. satisfactory
T. take in
U. person who does something for pleasure
V. a broad street in a city, often laid out with trees
W. old-fashioned
X. too proud
Y. fighting


Key:

T 2. S 3. A 4. H 5. M 6. B 7. P 8. F 9. U 10. O 11. N 12. C 13. W 14. D 15. R 16. X 17. I 18. K 19. L, 20. Q 21. J. 22 G 23. E 24. Y 25. V


Starters:

How to use prepositions

Part 14:

There are over 100 prepositions in English. We have already learnt how to use 55 prepositions during the past few weeks. Letís focus our attention on a few more prepositions today.

Forward of

If something is forward of a particular thing, it is near the front. The area forward of the valley is an ideal film location.

In between

If something is in between things, they are on either side of it. The students will have two lessons this morning, but there will be an interval in between.

Including

We use including to mention somebody or something that belongs to the group of people or things we are referring to. My grandfather had a radio in every room including the kitchen and bathroom!

In favour of


She spends a lot of time in front of the mirror.

I you are in favour of something, you support it.
The majority of the people are in favour of democracy.
Are you in favour of capital punishment?

In front of

If you do something in front of somebody else, you do it when they are present.
The children were frightened to make mistakes in front of their teacher.
If you are in front of something, you are near the front part of it.
She spends a lot of time in front of the mirror.

In lieu of

In lieu of is a substitute for instead of.
The private sector employees receive the Employees Provident Fund in lieu of a pension.
He gave me a cheque in lieu of cash.

Inside

If somebody or something is inside? a place, they are surrounded by its boundaries.
She went inside the house to bring a glass of water.
Can you put this mobile phone inside my bag?
Inside can be used figuratively.
Inside most of us there is a small voice screaming for justice.
Inside can mean on or to the inside.
The coat has a silk lining inside.
I opened the bag but there was nothing inside!
We moved inside when it started to rain.

In spite of

In spite of (written as three words) means despite.
In spite of all my efforts I failed the examination.
In spite of the threat of war, we decided to visit North Korea.

Instead of

Instead of means as an alternative or replacement to somebody or something.
Let me read a book instead of watching television.
I drink tea instead of coffee.
She wore a saree instead of a skirt.

Into

 Into indicates moving to a point within something.
The guest walked into the house without any invitation!
She dived into the water.
Mother poured hot tea into a cup.
You can put the money into your bank account.
Into can mean in the direction of something.
She spoke clearly into the microphone.
Into means to a point during something.
He used to work late into the night.
Mary is well into her 50s.
Into is used to show a change in form or appearance.
He turned one of the bedrooms into a study.
She is translating an English novel into Chinese.
Into indicates a change in state.
J. R. Jayewardene came into power in 1977.


Adjectives from nouns

Words often come in families. You can expand your vocabulary by becoming familiar with these word families.

Today lets continue to make adjectives from nouns. Write the adjective against each noun in column A. Check your answers with the key.

[Column A] [Column B]

1. Failure ................
2. Fairness ................
3. Faith ................
4. Familiarity ................
5. Fame ................
6. Fashion ................
7. Fat ................
8. Fault ................
9. Fear ................
10. Fiction ................
11. Final ................
12. Finish ................
13. Firmness ................
14. Fish ................
15. Fit ................
16. Fix ................
17. Flat ................
18. Flower ................
19. Fold ................
20. Follower ................
21. Force ................
22. Forest ................
23. Forgetfulness ................
24. Forgiveness ................
25. Form ................


Key:

1. unfailing
2. fair
3. faithful
4. familiar
5. famous
6. fashionable
7. fat
8. faulty
9. fearful
10. fictional
11. final
12. finished
13. firm
14. fishy
15. fitting
16. fixed
17. flat
18. flowery
19. folded
20. following
21. forceful
22. forested
23. forgetful
24. forgiving
25. reformed

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